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The Definition of Genealogy   l   The Origin of Genealogy   Types of Genealogy
The Present State of Genealogy Research   l   Genealogy Terms  l   Reading a Genealogy

1) Bijo (鼻祖, 비조, Founding Father)
The bijo is the highest person found in one's genealogy.

2) Shijo (始祖, 시조, Progenitor)
The shijo is the progenitor of a clan or family.

3) Jungshijo (中始祖, 중시조, Middle Progenitor)
The jungshijo is an ancestor responsible for reestablishing a fallen family and the decision of who the Jungshijo is, is agreed upon by all the families of that clan.

4) Se and Dae (世 and 代, 세 와 대, Generations of Descendents or Ancestors)
A generation after oneself (one's son, for example) is called 1 se (世), while a generation before oneself (one's father, for example) is called 1 dae (代). A grandfather would be 2 dae (代), while a grandson would be se (世).

5) Ja and Ho (字 and 號, 자 와 호, Names Given to a Man)
Nowadays, Koreans goes by one name, but historically a person would be given several names throughout his life. When born, a man is given his baby name, and when he became an adult, he would be given an adult name ja (字, 자). The ho (號, 호) was a sort of nickname used to be addressed candidly by lower people in society.

6) Ham and Hui (銜 and 諱, 함 과 휘, Names to Address a Man)
When addressing a living person honorifically, it is called a hamja (銜字, 함자), or in some cases jonham (尊啣, 존함). Huija (諱字, 휘자) is a name used to address a deceased person
honorifically. It is Korean etiquette to say ja (字, 자) after each syllable in a person's name.

7) Hangnyeol (行列, 항렬, Degrees of kinship)
Hangnyeol (行列字, 항렬자) is used by a clan to clearly distinguish what generation an individual is within that family. The Hangnyeolja (行列字, 항렬자) also called dollimja. A dollimja is used by members of a generation and is the same character for that generation, but different for the next. The position of the dollimja rotates each generation.

Hangnyeol is applied differently depending on the clan or family, but here are patterns that families will use to choose a common syllable:

Shipgan (十干, 십간, The Ten Heavenly Stems)
    In order : gap (甲, 갑), eul (乙, 을), byeong (丙, 병), jeong (丁, 정), mu (戊, 무), gi (己, 기),         gyeong (庚, 경), shin (辛, 신), im (壬, 임), gye (癸, 계)

Shibiji (十二支, 십이지, The Twelve Earthly Branches)
    In order : ja (子, 자), chuk (丑, 축), in (寅, 인), myo (卯, 묘), jin (辰, 진), sa (巳, 사), o (午, 오),
    mi (未, 미), shin (申, 신), yu (酉, 유), sul (戌, 술), hae (亥, 해)

Ohaeng Sangsaengbeop (五行相生法, 오행상생법, The Five Elements)
    In order : geum (金, 금), su (水, 수), mok (木, 목), hwa (火, 화), to (土, 토)


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